畜禽粪便堆肥过程中各种氮化合物的动态变化及腐熟度评价指标

畜禽粪便堆肥过程中各种氮化合物的动态变化

及腐熟度评价指标

3

鲍艳宇1

 周启星1,3

 颜 丽2

 关连珠

233

(1南开大学环境科学与工程学院,天津300071;

2

沈阳农业大学土地与环境学院,沈阳110161;

3

中国科学院沈阳应用生态

研究所,沈阳110016)

摘 要 对不同畜禽粪便在堆肥过程中各种含氮化合物的动态变化进行了研究,结合综合性

腐熟度评价指标———种子发芽指数(GI ),探讨了畜禽粪便堆肥过程中与氮有关的腐熟度评价指标.结果表明:随着堆肥的进行,除奶牛粪外,其它畜禽粪便的全氮(T N )含量均呈先下降而后平稳变化趋势,奶牛粪则呈先增加而后平稳变化趋势;各种畜禽粪便中,碱解性氮(HN )含

量先增后降;NH 4+2N 含量先下降而后保持平稳;NO 3-2N 含量则持续增加;NH 4+2N /NO 3-2N

迅速降低.堆肥腐熟度指标中,除综合性评价指标GI 值外,HN /T N 和NH 4+

2N /T N 也可作为

评价畜禽粪便腐熟程度的优选指标,而NO 3-2N /T N 只能作为一般性评价指标.根据综合性评价指标GI 值达到腐熟要求的标准(GI >0150),除仔猪粪外,其它畜禽粪便在HN /T N <

20177%、NH 4+2N /T N <10106%及NO 3-2N /T N >0138%时基本达到腐熟要求.

关键词 畜禽粪便 堆肥 氮素形态 腐熟度指标文章编号 1001-9332(2008)02-0374-07 中图分类号 S 14114 文献标识码 A D ynam i c changes of n itrogen for m s i n li vestock manure dur i n g co m posti n g and relevan t

eva lua ti on i n d i ces of com post ma tur ity.BAO Yan 2yu 1,Z HOU Q i 2xing 1,3,Y AN L i 2

,G UAN

L ian 2zhu 2(1

College of Environm ental S cience and Engineering,N ankai U niversity,Tianjin 300071,

China;2

College of L and and Environm ent,S henyang A gricu ltura l U n iversity,Shenyang 110161,

China;3

Institu te of A pplied Ecology,Chinese A cade m y of Sciences,Shenyang 110016,China ).2Chin .J.A ppl .Ecol .,2008,19(2):374-380.

Abstract:I n this paper,the dyna m ic changes of nitr ogen (N )f or m s in different livest ock manures were investigated during composting,and the relevant N evaluati on indices of compostmaturity were app r oached .The results indicated that during co mposting,the t otal nitr ogen (T N )concentrati on in dairy cattle manure increased first and beca me steady then,but in other five test manures,it de 2creased first and beca me steady then .For all test manures,their hydr olizable nitr ogen (HN )de 2

creased after an initial increase,NH 4+2N decreased first and beca me steady then,while NO 3-2N

had a persistent increase .Among the N indices of compost maturity,HN /T N and NH 4+

2N /T N

could be selected as the adap table para meters t o evaluate the maturity,while NO 3-2N /T N could be only used as a universal one .According t o the required standard of compost maturity based on the comp rehensive index GI (seed ger m inati on index ),i .e .,GI >0150,it was suggested that for the livest ock manures excep t young p ig manure,the basic require ments of their compost maturity were

HN /T N <20177%,NH 4+2N /T N <10.06%,and NO 3-2N /T N >0138%.Key words:livest ock manure;composting;nitr ogen f or m;compost maturity index .

3国家重点基础研究发展规划项目(2004CB418503)和中国科学院陆地生态过程重点实验室基金资助项目.33通讯作者.E 2mail:glz1960@http://m.doczj.com/doc/1eafb9b2bcd126fff7050bb5.html 2007201217收稿,2007212212接受.  堆肥是处理畜禽粪便使之达到无害和腐熟的主

要方法之一.畜禽粪便中含有大量的氮素,在堆肥过

程中,氮的转化过程包括氨化、硝化、反硝化、挥发

(如N 2、NH 3、N 2O )和生物吸收固定等,关系到臭气、肥效和养分损失等诸多方面,从而影响畜禽粪便堆肥产品质量,并最终决定堆肥产品的腐熟度,因此,堆肥过程中全氮、铵态氮、硝态氮等各种含氮化合物的变化值得关注.然而不同学者对各含氮化合物是

应用生态学报 2008年2月 第19卷 第2期                              

Chinese Journal of App lied Ecol ogy,Feb .2008,19(2):374-

畜禽粪便堆肥过程中各种氮化合物的动态变化及腐熟度评价指标

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