宾语从句,直接引语和间接引语

宾语从句

1.宾语从句的概念:在复合句中,充当宾语的是个句子,或者说句子作宾语。

2.位置:动宾,介宾

3.句子结构:主句 +连词(引导词)+ 宾语从句

宾语从句的引导词:

一、当宾语从句是陈述句时(包括肯定句和否定句),连词由that引导,因为that在从句中不作任何成分,也没有任何具体意思,因此在口语或非正式文体中常省略。

例:1.Lin Tao feels (that) his own team is even better.

2.Jim thought (that) the train was like a big moving party.

二、在主句为动词be加某些形容词,如sorry, sure, afraid, glad……作表语时(be+a.看作是一个动词词组),后面所跟从句也是宾语从句。

例:1.I’m sorry (that) I don’t know .

2.We’re sure (that) our team will win .

注:that 在句中无词汇意义,在从句中不能充当成分,在口语当中往往省略。

三、当宾语从句是一般疑问句时,由连词whether或if引导(口语中常用if),if/whether 虽然不作成分,但是译为:“是否”,所以不能省略。

例:1.Lily wanted to know (if /whether) her grandma liked the handbag .

2.Let’s see (if /whether) we can find out some information about that city . 注:1.当句中有or 或者or not时,引导词只能用whether而不能用if.

2.在介词后面,引导词只能用whether而不能用if.

3.在动词不定式前,引导词只能用whether而不能用if.

四、当宾语从句是特殊疑问句时,由连接代词(what, who, whom, which, whose)或连接副词(when, where, why,how, how many, how old, how long,……, )引导,每个连接词在从句中都担任一定的句子成分,意思各不相同,所以不可以省略。

例:1.Do you know what he said just now ?

2.I don’t remem ber when we arrived .

3.Please tell me who (whom) we have to see .

4. Do you know what time the plane leaves ?

五、带how的词组也都可以引导宾语从句。

例:1.Could you tell us how long the meeting will last ?

2.I don’t know how far it is to the cinema .

宾语从句的时态

一、如果主句是现在或将来的某个时态,从句的时态可根据实际情况而定。

二、如果主句是过去的某个时态,那么从句的时态一定要用过去的某种时态(包括一般过去

时,过去进行时,过去将来时,过去完成时……)

例:1.I knew who lived here.

2.I saw she was talking with her mother.

三、当从句是客观真理,定义,公理,定理时用一般现在时。

例:The teacher said that the earth travels around the sun .宾语从句的语序

宾语从句的语序用陈述语序:连接词+主语+谓语+其他成分

对比,加深印象:

1. When will he go to the library?

His brother asks when he will go to the library .(√)

His brother asks when will he go to the library . (×)

2. What does he want to buy ?

I don’t know what he wants to buy .(√)

I don’t know what does he want to buy .(×)

注意事项:1.could / would是委婉语气,而不是过去式,因此宾语从句的

时态根据实际情况用不同时态。 2. 如果主句的谓语动词是ask时,连词不可能是that;如果主句的谓语动词是say时,连词一定用that。 3. 如果从句中含有or或or not时,只能用whether而不用if 。

直接引语与间接引语

1.直接引语:直接引用别人的原话.直接引语的前后必须加引号。

2.间接引语:间接转述别人的话。间接引语前后不加引号。(间接引语构成宾语从句)

直接引语变间接引语可分为四大类:

一、直接引语为陈述句

二、直接引语为一般疑问句

三、直接引语为特殊疑问句

四、直接引语为祈使句

直接引语是陈述句

直接引语如果是陈述句,变为间接引语时,用连词that引导,that在口语中常省略。主句的谓语动词可直接用引语中的say, 也可用tell来代替,注意,可以说say that, tell sb. that,但不可直接说tell that 。

例:He often says,“China is great.”→ He often says (that) China is great.直接引语是一般疑问句:

间接引语用连词whether或if引导,原主句中谓语动词say要改为ask ,语序一定变为陈述语序。

例:1.He said, “Do you have any difficulty with pronunciation?”

2.He asked (me) whether/if I had any difficulty with my pronunciation. 注意:大多数情况下,if ,whether 可以互换,但句中出现or (not),或放在介

词后作连接词,只用whether。

直接引语是特殊疑问句:

原来的疑问词作为间接引语的连词,主句的谓语动词用ask(sb. )来表达。语

序一定改为陈述句语序。

例:1.He said to me,“What's your name?”

2.He asked me what my name was.

直接引语是祈使句,用:tell/order/ask/warn… sb. to do sth.

祈使句的否定形式,用:tell/order/ask/warn… sb. not to do sth.

例:1.He said, “Please come here tomorrow.”

2.He asked me to go there the next day.

直接引语变间接引语:人称根据语境变化

例:1.He said,“ My brother failed in the exam.”

He said _his___brother had failed in the exam.

2.He said to Mary,“ How is your mother now?”

He asked Mary how _her____mother was then.

3.My teacher said, ‘‘ she is a good student. ’’

My teacher said _she___was a good student.

时态的变化

1.如果主句的谓语动词是现在时,直接引语变成间接引语时,从句的时态无需变化。

2.如果主句的谓语动词是一般过去时,直接引语变成间接引语时,从句的时态要

做出相应的改变,如下所示:

一般现在时一般过去时

一般过去时过去完成时

一般将来时过去将来时

现在进行时过去进行时

过去进行时过去完成进行时

将来进行时过去将来进行时

现在完成时过去完成时

过去完成时过去完成时

将来完成时过去将来完成时

现在完成进行时过去完成进行时

过去完成进行时过去完成进行时

将来完成进行时过去将来完成进行时

例:1.“ I am ill today.” said my mother.

My mother said that she was ill that day.

注意:直接引语转为间接引语时,下列情况下时态不变:1. 直接引语若表示

的是客观事实或真理时,变间接引语时时态不变.2. 当引语中的时间状语表

示过去某一具体时间时,谓语动词时态不需改变.

直接引语中的时间状语转换规则:

宾语从句,直接引语和间接引语

1.直接引语中的指示代词转换规则:this变为that; these变为those.本来就

是that/those则不变。

2.直接引语中动词come在间接引语中用go.

3.直接引语中副词here在间接引语中用there.

总结:

宾语从句,直接引语和间接引语

相关推荐
相关主题
热门推荐