Who’s that? It’s me.
none 相当于名词,作主语和宾语. None代替不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式; 代替可数名词做主语时,谓语动词可以是单数,也可以是复数,在非正式文体中更常用复数形式.
She has no brother(s).
None of them Know(s) English.
None of us is/are afraid of difficulties.
I need some money, but there is none
None of my friends smoke.
All my friends do not smoke.
4.Both sisters are here.姐妹俩都在这里.
Both sisters are not here.
Neither of the sisters is here.
5.another,the other和the others
another “另一个,又一个” (泛指,三者以上)
the other “两者中的另一个”
the others “其余的(几个,一些)”
Would you like to have another cup of tea?
This article is better than the others.
都表示“每个”.但each强调“个别”, every强调“全体”. every只能作定语; each可作主语,宾语,定语和同位语.
Each person in turn went to see the
He gave every patient the same
Each of them did his best.
He gave them each an apple.
one可用来代替前面出现过的可数名词,以免重复. 有复数形式ones. one 还可作“任何一个人”解,有所有格形式one’s 和反身代词oneself.
I haven’t a notebook. Can you lend me
You should see her photos. She’s
taken some very good ones.
One must do one’s duty.
One should not praise oneself.
One cannot pass the examination
unless one (he) works hard.
She said she had lost her watch, which was not true.
10.在形容词最高级,序数词和大部分不定代词(all,much,little,any,anything, anybody, something,somebody,nobody,no one, everything等)以及等词的后面,用关系代词She is the most careful girl (that) I know.
Everything that can be done must be done.
The first boy that came to school was Li Ping.
I will give you all that I have.
He was the only student that didn’s pass the examination.
You may come at any time that is convinient to you.
The characters and events that are describe in this play are taken from history.
Choose the best answer:
1.Sorry,we don’t understand you. ___of us can speak German.
A. A little
B. A few
2.I have a brother and a sister. They are ___living in Australia.
3.___of them can be trusted, because they are not honest at all.
4.Our factory gave ___worker a bonus(奖金) of 800 yuan at the end of the year to praise their hardworking.
5.We like travelling. This summer my family are ___going to Qingdao for holidays.
6.During the exam no one is allowed to ask ___questions.
D. a few
7.The notice said that ___ students and their parents should come to school this afternoon.
8.Go along North Street, and you can find a tower at ____end of the bridge.
9.Tove does not know ____of them. She only knows a few of them.
10.When the teacher asked the two boys, they ___ offered a solution to the problem.
11.Helen is older than ___of the other girls in her class. She is not the oldest.
12.___the three buses will take you to the Palace Museum. You can take any of them.
a big black cat
the round glass table
an interesting English play
two meters high
nine years old
ten feet wide
He often came here.
He came here yesterday.
I met your uncle on my way home.
The people there were very kind to me
Choose the best answer
1.His hair turns grey, but he is two years than my father.
2.He is the most famous physicist___.
3.We still does not understand what will happen, so we have to wait for the ___notice.
4.Kelly works harder in English than___in her class. She is the best student in English.
A. all the students
B. anyone else
C. any student
D. any students
5.___you work, ___you will learn.
A. Harder, more
B. Hard, much
C. The hard, the much
D. The harder, the more
6.Among the three pictures, this one is the ___ beautiful.
7.The teacher said to Ted, “I hope you will do your homework ___ next time.”
A. much more carefully
B. much carefully
C. a bit carefully
D. a bit more carefully
8.I am astonished that she spends so much money on books, because I know how___ she earns.
9.If you don’t practise ___, you won’t speak ___ English.
A. much, well
B. many, good
C. better, more
D. more, better
10.There will be a dancing party tomorrow afternoon, ___ are busy preparing for it.
A. There students
B. The students there
C. There the students
D. The there students
11.The boy’s mother took him to the store to buy him a birthday present. Of all the toys, he chose ___.
A. the less expensive one
B. the least expensive one
C. most expensive one
D. the most expensive
12.Tom and Tony are twin brothers. Tony is ___ of the two.
A. the taller
D. the tallest
13.This film is ___ the one we saw last week.
A. less more interesting
B. not so interesting as
C. less interesting as
D. fewer interesting as
14.Alice is in her bedroom. It is ___.
A. to upstairs
D. to upstair
15.Harry is leaving. He has been here since a month ___.
16.Look! What a ___ tower! The birds can’t fly that ___.
A. highly, high
B. highly, highly
C. high, high
D. high, highly
17.Hold the book ___ please, for I can’t see the words in it clearly.
A. more closer
C. more closely
18.He is so astonished that he ___ knew what to say.
19.Would you be ___ to show me the way to the railway station?
A. so good
B. good enough
C. so good enough
D. enough good
20.The second blind man said that the elephant is more like a spare than___.
A. anyone else
D. anything else
I do work hard.
Do be careful.
Do you smoke? Yes, I do.
I went to the concert yesterday.
So did he.
Never did he go there again.
Only then did I understand what she meant.
4.can和be able to都可以表示能力,意义上没有区别,但can 只有现在式和过去(could),
而be able to则有更多的形式.
No one is able to do it./No one can do it.
We shall be able to finish the work next
I haven’t been able to find the book.
5.在回答带有“must”的问句时,否定式常用need not (needn’t)或don’t have to,表示“不必”, 而不用must not ,因为must not 表示“不可以”
Must I be home before eight o’clock?
No, you needn’t./No, you don’t have to.
“must + 动词原形”表示对现在事情的推测.
The Chinese language must have the
largest number of speakers.
“must + have + 过去分词”表示对过去事情的推测.
She must have arrived by now.
You ought to follow your father’s advice.
He said that you ought to pay more attention
to your studies.
Ought he to go? Yes, I think he ought (to)
8.“ ought to + have + 过去分词”表示过去应该做但还没有做的事情.
I ought to have phoned him this morning,
but I forgot.
(1)表示与现在事实相反,if从句用过去式, 主句用“should/would/could/might +不定式”
If I were her age, I would be very active in class.
If you tried again, you might succeed.
(2)表示与过去事实相反,if从句用过去完成式, 主句用“should/would/could/might +不定式完成式”
If we had found him earlier, we might have saved his life.
(3)表示未来实现可能性极小, if从句用should/were to, 主句用“should/would/ could/might +不定式”
If I should / were to do the experiment, I would do it some other way.
Were I asked, I would tell all the facts.
Had it not been for your help, I could not have completed.
3.在if only 感叹句中
(1)if only表示“但愿”, “要是……就好”它的用法和I wish基本相同,只是更富有感情色彩.
If only he didn’t drive so fast!(I wish he didn’t drive so fast.
If only she had asked someone’s advice.
If only the rain would stop.(I wish it would stop.)
If only you would agree to help me next week, I would not be so nervous.
If I could only go to the concert.
If I could but/just explain!
Would you like him to paint the door green?
I’d rather (that) he painted it blue.
It’s (about )time you were in bed.
It’s (high) time (that) we left.
6.在as if / as though从句中
He felt as if he alone were responsible for what had happened.
She spoke to me as if I were/was deaf.
This device operated as if it had been repaired.
He looks as if he is going to be ill.
Bill suggested that everyone (should )have a map.
It was suggested that everyone have a map.
It was Bill’s suggestion that everyone have a map.
His suggestion was that everyone have a map.
We were going to discuss his suggestion that everyone have a map.
advise (advice), agree (agreement), decide (decision), demand, determine (determination), indicate (indication), insist (insistence), order, prefer (preference), propose (proposal), request, require (requirement), urge, allow, arrange, ask, beg, ensure, intend,
1.I wish my wife___(be) here to advise me.
2.I wish I___ (have) your opportunities when I was young.
3.I hope it___ (not be) true.
4.I hope they ___(be) pleased when they see the photographs.
5.If only he___ (not smoke) so much, he’d feel much better.
6.But I told you what to do.
I know you did. If only I ___(take) your advice!
My brother and I have seen the flim.
To mean to do something and actually to do something are two different things.
The worker and writer has written a new novel.
2.两个主语用with,together with, as well as,except, but 连接,谓语动词与前一个主语一致.
A woman with two children is sitting at the gate.
The teacher as well as the students was present at the meeting.
Two workers as well as the factory director were present at the meeting.
John, together with his wife, was at the party.
Everybody except Tim speaks sme Chinese.
No one but myself knows anything about it.
Neither he nor I have done it.
Either you or I am going to pick her up.
There is a cup, a pen, and some books on the desk.
There are two doctors and a nurse in the office.
5.集体名词group, class, family, audience, crew, committee, army, club, company, crowd, couple, government, party, staff, team, public等作主语时,如果视为整体,用单数; 视为个体(个个成员),用复数.
My family is large.
The family are sitting at the breakfast
This group is having a meeting.
Our group are reading newspapers.
6.people, military, police, cattle,crew,medium,bacteria等集体名词作主语时,谓语用复数
In some places rats have been seen, and people have been warned to be careful.
The police are looking for the thief.
The cattle were grazing at the foot of the hill.
Three and four is (are) seven.
Three plus four equals (equal) seven.
Three and four makes (make) seven.
Four times five is twenty.
Twenty years is a long period in his life.
Three thousand dollars is more than I can afford.
Two third of the area is under the water.
The old are well looked after by the government.
The dying usually think back of their past.
The useful is not always reasonable.
The good is always beautiful and the beautiful is not always good.
1）each和some, any, no, every构成的代词作主语时，谓语都用单数形式。
Two boys entered. Each was carrying a suitcase.
Somebody wants to see you, sir.
Is there anything I can do for you?
There is really nothing to be said.
2) both, some, many, few, all(of them)后的谓语多用复数形式。
Both of them are English.
Many are for going by plane.
Few of my friends like Sheila.
All is going well.
Some of the milk has gone sour.
Neither of the books is of any use to me.
Neither are suitble for a newspaper.
None of my friends has ever been to Paris.
None of us are perfect.
My siser is a nurse.
Her room is on the fifth floor.
She works in a hospital.
She knows a little English.
Everybody likes her.
She is a kind girl.
The report sounds true.
Her hospital is not very big.
Everyone in the hospital works hard.
She is a responsible girl.
She gets up very early.
She feels very happy.
The bank closes at six.
She may be right.
I wish you success.
Are you from China?
Do you know English?
Are they in town now? I think so.
Where should I sit?
How long do you plan to stay here?
Are you from the South or from the North?
Would you like coffee or tea?
You come from Britain, don’t you?
Yes, I do.
Your wife isn’t in China now, is she?
Yes, she is.(不，她在)
Don’t be late again.
Take a seat, please.
4.感叹句----表示赞美、惊异等情绪，形式是修饰短语，后接主语及be。主语及be可以省略：What a nice day!
How silly you are!
It was getting late; she must star back home.
We fished all day; we didn’t catch a thing.
但更多的并列句都包含一个并列连词，把两部分连接起来。（and, or, for, but, so, yet, nor, not only… but also, either… or, neither…nor）
I’ve got a cold, so I’m going to bed
You must hurry or you won’t make it for the train.
I think; therefore I am.
He cannot speak, neither can he hear.
That she is still alive is a consolation.
It is strange that it hasn’t been noticed before.
It’s a pity that he didn’t finish college.
It happened that the harvest was bad that year.
It is said that there has been an earthquake in Japan.
※由连接代词、连接副词或由连词whether引起的主语从句How many people we are to invite is still a question.
It is still a question how many people we are to invite.
It was clear enough what she meant.
It’s a puzzle how life began.
It didn’t matter much where he lived.
Is it known where they went?
What he said id true.
What you have to do is to choose a company to invest in.
What surprised me was that she knew so much about China.
That’s how I look at it.
That’s where you are wrong.
That’s what I want to stress.
She said that she didn’t want to know.
I didn’t know whether they liked the place.
I wonder if it’s large enough.
I want to tell you what I hear.
I’m afraid that…
We are sure that…
We received a message that he would be absent.
This is the book whitch\that was on the desk.
Jim introduced me to a girl who sat next to him.
These are the reasons why we did it.
?本身就是副词: often, rather …
加词尾-ly变化而来: rapidly, simply, easily, fully, truly, historically…
?有些单音节词可以直接用作副词，而不必加-ly: far, fast, late, hard …
?副词和形容词同形: early, enough…
?friendly, motherly, fatherly, womanly, manly, heavenly …
?daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, yearly …
?lovely, orderly, timely, deadly, lively, costly …
?clear “完全地” (= clean)
He spoke loud(ly) and clear(ly).
directly “直接地” (与“间接地”相对)
high / highly
aim high 力争上游，
hold one’s head high 骄傲
search high and low 到处搜寻
?highly: 通常指抽象意义的“高”，也可用来修饰形容词，表示“很，极”，如：He spoke highly of her.
The book is highly interesting.
right / rightly
Go right home.
That’s the book, right in front of us.
Nothing seems to go right with me.
?She didn’t talk much.
?I’m not much good at singing.
?That was much the best meal I’ve had for years.
?She is much too busy to see visitors.
?She went farther and farther away.
?The more I thought, the more extraordinary did it appear.
?We’d better not disturb him.
?You ought to know better than to go out without an overcoat on such a cold day.
?He was going to answer me back, but he thought better of it.
?I had best have your opinion first.
exciting news – excited audience
boiling water – boiled water
a pleasing voice – a pleased look
a terrifying story – a terrified child
?There are many old men present.
What’s your present feeling?
?形容词修饰由some-, any-, every-, no-等构成的合成代词时须后置
?Something strange, anything special
?Xi’an is a city famous for its historic spots.
late, later, latest (表示时间)
late, latter, last (表示顺序)
?有些形容词没有比较级和最高级: unique, favorite, perfect, extreme, initial, supreme, final, infinite, ultimate, recent, inferior, superior, matchless, maximum, minimum, 这一类词一般也不用程度副词来修饰
too … to 结构表结果，一般意为“太……而不能……”，具有否定意义；但too后若修饰kind, ready，willing, happy等词时，不表结果，也无否定意义。
?This is more a war movie than a western.
?(2)more and more
?(3)the more…the more
?The warmer the weather, the better I feel.
?5）less than “不到…”, “不太”
?I bought it for less than a dollar.
?The boys were less than happy about having a party.
?6)no less than “多达，不少于“
?No less than 1,000 people came.
?7)more or less 基本上，大体上，大约
?The work is more or less finished.
?The answers were more or less right.
anterior / prior / posterior + to
superior / inferior + to
senior / junior + to
?若对两者进行比较，句中又无than出现，则常用: the＋比较级＋of the two
He has no more than 20 yuan.
He has not more than 20 yuan.
She is no more beautiful than May.
She is not more beautiful than May.
?no more than = only “仅”
?not more than = at most “至多”
?no more … than = neither … nor… “和……一样不”
?not more … than = less … than “不如”
?no less than = as much / many as
?not less than = at least “至少”
?no less … than = as … as “与……一样”
?not less … than = more … than “比……更”
?I would rather die than give in.
?She is not very beautiful, but I love her none the less.
?Now it is no longer a dream to fly to the moon.
?I know better than to quarrel with him.
?形容词最高级前可用much, by far, quite far, nearly, almost等来修饰；但使用very来修饰时，必须是：
the very + 形容词最高级
He is the busiest (boy) in the class.
He is busiest in September.
?他们之间的关系日益恶化。From bad to worse
?好歹他们是街坊。For better for worse
S+Vi Every body smiled
S+Vt+O He knows everything
S+V+Oi+Od I showed him my passport
S+Vlink+C The boy looks healthy
S+Vt+O+C What made you angry?
The sun is rising.
The train is arriving.
May I go?
Did you sleep well?
Don’t drive so fast.
She swims like a fish.
The temperature fell ten degrees.
The economic crisis broke out first in the United States.
The engine broke down.
How did the accident come about?
The door blew open.
Cheese cuts easily.
Does this cloth wash well?
Where is the new film showing?
Do you know them?
He loved poetry.
Have you ordered your meal?
Shall I call a taxi?
Don’t catch cold.(idiom)
This sentence doesn’t make sense.
I can’t express myself in English.
Now I’ll introduce myself.
She saw herself in the mirror.
Are you enjoying yourselves? 固定词组
We engage ourselves to fulfil our obligations.
He had engaged to finish it by May.
Alice laughed a scornful laugh.
He could sleep the peaceful sleep of the young.
He smiled a strange smile.
As he slept, he dreamed a dream.
She lived a happy life and died a natural death.
He said his say and then sat down.
He handed in his resignation this morning.
They brought forward a new scheme of taxation.
They will not agree to that arrangement.
He thought of his boyhood.
The treaty will come into force next month.
The spring term had come to an end.
We shouldn’t look down on this work.
The children were eagerly looking forward to the party.
Pay attention to your grammar.
I’ll take care of it.
I must accommodate myself to your plan.
They no longer troubled themselves about him.
Someone is asking to see you.
We can’t afford to pay such a price.
You must learn when to give advice and when to be silent.
He explained how to use the dictionary.
Would you mind waiting a few minute?
I hope that I have said nothing to pain you.
I guess we’ll leave now.
I didn’t know where they had gone.
This shows how much she sympathized with him.
I’ll tell you what I hear.
She gave me her telephone number.
She sang a flok song for us.
I envy you your good luck.
Tell him I’m out.
Can you nform me where Miss Green lives?
I’ll tell you what I read in today’s paper.
How are you? I’m fine.
When she saw this, she turned red.
She remained calm.
This food looks delicious.
She always seems pleased, happy and contented.
His dream has at last become a reality.
He stood there and felt a stranger.
I still stand your friend.我仍然是你的朋友
Is Helen in?
I have been out for a walk.
The bus stop is just across the road.
The temperature is between 15c and 25c.
His plan is to keep the affair secret.
Surely she was to be trusted.
Her hobby is collecting stamps.
My job is repairing cars.
Their first idea was that he had hidden it.
The question is what you want to do.
That’s what I wish to do.
She is fond of this country.
I was frightened of rats then.
I was sorry to hear that you were ill.
I’m happy to meet you.
I’m afraid there is some sort of misunderstanding.
I’m glad you have come.
由连接代词副词引导（36）I was not sure what I ought to do. 第五类句型：主语＋及物动词＋复合宾语
He found his new job rather boring.
Good food keeps you healthy.
I felt it necessary to make everything clear.
They called their daughter Mary.
We elected Smith our chairman.
He put his books in order.
She tried to talk her husband out of going.
She wished herself home.
Don’t leave me behind.
What do you advise me to do?
We thought hime to be an honest man.
主语＋及物＋宾＋不带to的不定式（42） What makes you tremble so?
We can’t let this go on.
He found Helen sitting there.
I saw her chatting with Nancy.
I have heard it said that he is a miser.
He watched the piano carried upstairs.