专升本语法

一.代词

1.人称代词作表语时,在口语中常用宾格形式

Who’s that? It’s me.

2.no和none

no==not any(没有),只作定语,修饰可数名词(单,复数)和不可数名词.

none 相当于名词,作主语和宾语. None代替不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式; 代替可数名词做主语时,谓语动词可以是单数,也可以是复数,在非正式文体中更常用复数形式.

She has no brother(s).

None of them Know(s) English.

None of us is/are afraid of difficulties.

I need some money, but there is none

at hand.

3.none 表示“三个或三个以上都不…”.

None of my friends smoke.

我的朋友都不抽烟.

All my friends do not smoke.

我的朋友并不是个个抽烟

4.Both sisters are here.姐妹俩都在这里.

Both sisters are not here.

并不是姐妹俩都在这里.

Neither of the sisters is here.

姐妹俩都不在这里.

5.another,the other和the others

another “另一个,又一个” (泛指,三者以上)

the other “两者中的另一个”

the others “其余的(几个,一些)”

Would you like to have another cup of tea?

This article is better than the others.

6.each和every

都表示“每个”.但each强调“个别”, every强调“全体”. every只能作定语; each可作主语,宾语,定语和同位语.

Each person in turn went to see the

doctor.

He gave every patient the same

medicine.

Each of them did his best.

He gave them each an apple.

7.One

one可用来代替前面出现过的可数名词,以免重复. 有复数形式ones. one 还可作“任何一个人”解,有所有格形式one’s 和反身代词oneself.

I haven’t a notebook. Can you lend me

one?

You should see her photos. She’s

taken some very good ones.

One must do one’s duty.

One should not praise oneself.

8.在同一句中重复说one时,英国人仍说one

(one’s), 美国人则说he(his).

One cannot pass the examination

unless one (he) works hard.

9.关系代词which的先行词不是一个名词,而是一个句子.

She said she had lost her watch, which was not true.

10.在形容词最高级,序数词和大部分不定代词(all,much,little,any,anything, anybody, something,somebody,nobody,no one, everything等)以及等词的后面,用关系代词She is the most careful girl (that) I know.

Everything that can be done must be done.

The first boy that came to school was Li Ping.

I will give you all that I have.

He was the only student that didn’s pass the examination.

You may come at any time that is convinient to you.

11.当先行词既有人又有物时,要用that.

The characters and events that are describe in this play are taken from history.

Choose the best answer:

1.Sorry,we don’t understand you. ___of us can speak German.

A. A little

B. A few

C. Little

D. Few

2.I have a brother and a sister. They are ___living in Australia.

A. either

B. both

C. neither

D. all

3.___of them can be trusted, because they are not honest at all.

A. Both

B. Either

C. Neither

D. All

4.Our factory gave ___worker a bonus(奖金) of 800 yuan at the end of the year to praise their hardworking.

A. either

B. every

C. all

D. both

5.We like travelling. This summer my family are ___going to Qingdao for holidays.

A. each

B. every

C. both

D. all

6.During the exam no one is allowed to ask ___questions.

A. some

B. any

C. all

D. a few

7.The notice said that ___ students and their parents should come to school this afternoon.

A. each

B. every

C. all

D. both

8.Go along North Street, and you can find a tower at ____end of the bridge.

A. both

B. every

C. either

D. any

9.Tove does not know ____of them. She only knows a few of them.

A. all

B. none

C. both

D. any

10.When the teacher asked the two boys, they ___ offered a solution to the problem.

A. every

B. each

C. none

D. all

11.Helen is older than ___of the other girls in her class. She is not the oldest.

A. some

B. any

C. no

D. either

12.___the three buses will take you to the Palace Museum. You can take any of them.

A. Any

B. All

C. None

D. Neither

二.形容词和副词

1.一般的形容词既可作定语,也可作表语.但是有些形容词只能作定语,不能作表语,如wooden(木制的),daily(每日的)等.另外有些形容词只能作表语,不能作定语,如well(健康的,好),afraid(害怕),alive(活的),alone(单独的),awake(醒着的),等等.

2.两个或两个以上的形容词修饰一个名词,通常是关系最密切的要靠近被修饰的名词.

a big black cat

the round glass table

an interesting English play

3.在量度表达法中,形容词放在量度名词之后

two meters high

nine years old

ten feet wide

4.地点副词常放句末.如果时间副词和地点副词同时出现,一般是地点副词在前,时间副词在后.

He often came here.

He came here yesterday.

5.副词作定语时,一般放在被修饰词之后.

I met your uncle on my way home.

The people there were very kind to me

Choose the best answer

1.His hair turns grey, but he is two years than my father.

A. smaller

B. less

C. elder

D. younger

2.He is the most famous physicist___.

A. live

B. alive

C. living

D. lively

3.We still does not understand what will happen, so we have to wait for the ___notice.

A. further

B. farther

C. far

D. farer

4.Kelly works harder in English than___in her class. She is the best student in English.

A. all the students

B. anyone else

C. any student

D. any students

5.___you work, ___you will learn.

A. Harder, more

B. Hard, much

C. The hard, the much

D. The harder, the more

6.Among the three pictures, this one is the ___ beautiful.

A. least

B. more

C. less

D. very

7.The teacher said to Ted, “I hope you will do your homework ___ next time.”

A. much more carefully

B. much carefully

C. a bit carefully

D. a bit more carefully

8.I am astonished that she spends so much money on books, because I know how___ she earns.

A. little

B. many

C. less

D. few

9.If you don’t practise ___, you won’t speak ___ English.

A. much, well

B. many, good

C. better, more

D. more, better

10.There will be a dancing party tomorrow afternoon, ___ are busy preparing for it.

A. There students

B. The students there

C. There the students

D. The there students

11.The boy’s mother took him to the store to buy him a birthday present. Of all the toys, he chose ___.

A. the less expensive one

B. the least expensive one

C. most expensive one

D. the most expensive

12.Tom and Tony are twin brothers. Tony is ___ of the two.

A. the taller

B. taller

C. tallest

D. the tallest

13.This film is ___ the one we saw last week.

A. less more interesting

B. not so interesting as

C. less interesting as

D. fewer interesting as

14.Alice is in her bedroom. It is ___.

A. to upstairs

B. upstairs

C. upstair

D. to upstair

15.Harry is leaving. He has been here since a month ___.

A. before

B. later

C. ago

D. ahead

16.Look! What a ___ tower! The birds can’t fly that ___.

A. highly, high

B. highly, highly

C. high, high

D. high, highly

17.Hold the book ___ please, for I can’t see the words in it clearly.

A. more closer

B. closer

C. more closely

D. closely

18.He is so astonished that he ___ knew what to say.

A. never

B. seldom

C. hard

D. hardly

19.Would you be ___ to show me the way to the railway station?

A. so good

B. good enough

C. so good enough

D. enough good

20.The second blind man said that the elephant is more like a spare than___.

A. anyone else

B. anything

C. nothing

D. anything else

三.助动词和情态动词

1.Do 加强陈述句和祈使句的语气

I do work hard.

Do be careful.

2.Do 用于避免主要动词的重复出现

Do you smoke? Yes, I do.

I went to the concert yesterday.

So did he.

3.Do 构成倒装句

Never did he go there again.

Only then did I understand what she meant.

4.can和be able to都可以表示能力,意义上没有区别,但can 只有现在式和过去(could),

而be able to则有更多的形式.

No one is able to do it./No one can do it.

We shall be able to finish the work next

week.

I haven’t been able to find the book.

5.在回答带有“must”的问句时,否定式常用need not (needn’t)或don’t have to,表示“不必”, 而不用must not ,因为must not 表示“不可以”

Must I be home before eight o’clock?

Yes,you must.

No, you needn’t./No, you don’t have to.

6.Must表示推测,只用在肯定句中.

“must + 动词原形”表示对现在事情的推测.

The Chinese language must have the

largest number of speakers.

“must + have + 过去分词”表示对过去事情的推测.

She must have arrived by now.

7.Ought to表示应该做某事(和should差不多,只是语气稍重一些)

You ought to follow your father’s advice.

He said that you ought to pay more attention

to your studies.

Ought he to go? Yes, I think he ought (to)

8.“ ought to + have + 过去分词”表示过去应该做但还没有做的事情.

I ought to have phoned him this morning,

but I forgot.

四.虚拟语气

1.非真实条件句

(1)表示与现在事实相反,if从句用过去式, 主句用“should/would/could/might +不定式”

If I were her age, I would be very active in class.

If you tried again, you might succeed.

(2)表示与过去事实相反,if从句用过去完成式, 主句用“should/would/could/might +不定式完成式”

If we had found him earlier, we might have saved his life.

(3)表示未来实现可能性极小, if从句用should/were to, 主句用“should/would/ could/might +不定式”

If I should / were to do the experiment, I would do it some other way.

2.条件从句中有were,had,should时,可以省略if,把were,had,should放到句首.

Were I asked, I would tell all the facts.

Had it not been for your help, I could not have completed.

3.在if only 感叹句中

(1)if only表示“但愿”, “要是……就好”它的用法和I wish基本相同,只是更富有感情色彩.

If only he didn’t drive so fast!(I wish he didn’t drive so fast.

If only she had asked someone’s advice.

(2)与would连用,表示一时很难实现的愿望.

If only the rain would stop.(I wish it would stop.)

(3)if only感叹句也可理解为非真实条件句中if从句的加强语气.

If only you would agree to help me next week, I would not be so nervous.

因此only可移至主要动词前

If I could only go to the concert.

也可用but/just

If I could but/just explain!

4.在would rather后的that从句中.

(1)would rather意为“宁愿”,that从句动词用过去式表示不是事实

Would you like him to paint the door green?

I’d rather (that) he painted it blue.

5.在It’s (about/high)time后的that从句中.用过去式。

It’s (about )time you were in bed.

It’s (high) time (that) we left.

6.在as if / as though从句中

(1)表示与现在事实相反或对现在情况有所怀疑,用过去式.

He felt as if he alone were responsible for what had happened.

She spoke to me as if I were/was deaf.

(2)表示过去想象中的动作或情况,用过去完成式

This device operated as if it had been repaired.

(3)如果可能成为事实,用陈述语气.

He looks as if he is going to be ill.

7.在suggest 等动词后及其相应名词之后的that从句中.

(1)常用“(should) +不定式”表示建议,命令,要求,想法等.美国英语不用should

Bill suggested that everyone (should )have a map.

It was suggested that everyone have a map.

It was Bill’s suggestion that everyone have a map.

His suggestion was that everyone have a map.

We were going to discuss his suggestion that everyone have a map.

(2)这类动词及其名词常见的有:

advise (advice), agree (agreement), decide (decision), demand, determine (determination), indicate (indication), insist (insistence), order, prefer (preference), propose (proposal), request, require (requirement), urge, allow, arrange, ask, beg, ensure, intend,

1.I wish my wife___(be) here to advise me.

2.I wish I___ (have) your opportunities when I was young.

3.I hope it___ (not be) true.

4.I hope they ___(be) pleased when they see the photographs.

5.If only he___ (not smoke) so much, he’d feel much better.

6.But I told you what to do.

I know you did. If only I ___(take) your advice!

五.主谓一致

1.两个主语用and连接时,谓语动词用复数.

My brother and I have seen the flim.

To mean to do something and actually to do something are two different things.

如果两个名词指一个人或物时,用单数.

The worker and writer has written a new novel.

2.两个主语用with,together with, as well as,except, but 连接,谓语动词与前一个主语一致.

A woman with two children is sitting at the gate.

The teacher as well as the students was present at the meeting.

Two workers as well as the factory director were present at the meeting.

John, together with his wife, was at the party.

Everybody except Tim speaks sme Chinese.

No one but myself knows anything about it.

3.两个主语用either…or或neither…nor连接,谓语动词与后一个主语一致.

Neither he nor I have done it.

Either you or I am going to pick her up.

4.如果there be结构中有两个或两个以上的主语,谓语动词与第一个主语一致

There is a cup, a pen, and some books on the desk.

There are two doctors and a nurse in the office.

5.集体名词group, class, family, audience, crew, committee, army, club, company, crowd, couple, government, party, staff, team, public等作主语时,如果视为整体,用单数; 视为个体(个个成员),用复数.

My family is large.

The family are sitting at the breakfast

table.

This group is having a meeting.

Our group are reading newspapers.

6.people, military, police, cattle,crew,medium,bacteria等集体名词作主语时,谓语用复数

In some places rats have been seen, and people have been warned to be careful.

The police are looking for the thief.

The cattle were grazing at the foot of the hill.

7.数词做主语时,用单数,复数都可以.

3+4=7

Three and four is (are) seven.

Three plus four equals (equal) seven.

Three and four makes (make) seven.

4X5=20

Four times five is twenty.

8.表示时间,价格,距离和度量的复数名词作主语,如果被看作一个整体,则表示单数意义,根据概念一致的原则,用单数.

Twenty years is a long period in his life.

Three thousand dollars is more than I can afford.

Two third of the area is under the water.

9.名词化形容词作主语,根据概念一致的原则,决定谓语动词用单数还是复数.

(1)名词化形容词如果指某一类人(或事物)时,则表示复数意义.

The old are well looked after by the government.

The dying usually think back of their past.

有时候,在某些特定的情况下,这类词也可以指某个特定的人,表示单数意义. 人们通常把它看作省略了名词man.

(2)名词化形容词如果指某种抽象的概念或事物),则表示单数意义.

The useful is not always reasonable.

The good is always beautiful and the beautiful is not always good.

10.某些代词作主语

1)each和some, any, no, every构成的代词作主语时,谓语都用单数形式。

Two boys entered. Each was carrying a suitcase.

Somebody wants to see you, sir.

Is there anything I can do for you?

There is really nothing to be said.

2) both, some, many, few, all(of them)后的谓语多用复数形式。

Both of them are English.

Many are for going by plane.

Few of my friends like Sheila.

代表不可数东西的代词跟单数谓语:

All is going well.

Some of the milk has gone sour.

3)有些代词可跟单数谓语,也可跟复数谓语,根据意思来决定。

Neither of the books is of any use to me.

Neither are suitble for a newspaper.

None of my friends has ever been to Paris.

None of us are perfect.

六.句子

一、什么是句子

句子是表达思想的基本单位,只有完整的句子才能表达完整的思想。句子由单词组成,但组成时必须遵循一定的规则,这就是语法。

?二、句子成分

句子主要有下面这些成分:

1.主语(Subject)----是一句话的中心整句话都谈它的情况:

My siser is a nurse.

Her room is on the fifth floor.

2.谓语(Predicate)----是主语的主要情况,可表示动作,也可表示状态:

She works in a hospital.

She knows a little English.

3.宾语(Object)----表示动作的承受者,也可表示动作的结果:

Everybody likes her.

4.表语(Predicative)----和系动词一起构成谓语:

She is a kind girl.

The report sounds true.

5.定语(Attribute)----修饰名词、代词等:

Her hospital is not very big.

Everyone in the hospital works hard.

She is a responsible girl.

6.状语(Adverbial)----修饰动词、形容词或副词:

She gets up very early.

She feels very happy.

此外还有同位语,插入语及呼语。

?三、句子的种类

按说话的目的分为四类:

1.陈述句----陈述一个事实或表明一个看法:

The bank closes at six.

She may be right.

I wish you success.

2.疑问句----提出问题,请对方回答,形式是

助动词、情态动词、疑问词先行。问句可分为四类

1)一般疑问句----一般由yes或no回答:

Are you from China?

Do you know English?

Are they in town now? I think so.

2)特殊疑问句

Where should I sit?

How long do you plan to stay here?

3)选择疑问句----提出两种可能,问那种情况属实:

Are you from the South or from the North?

Would you like coffee or tea?

4)反意疑问句----由两部分组成,前面是陈

述句,后面为简短句,如果前面是肯定句,

后面一般是否定句,如果前面是否定句,

后面一般是肯定句:

You come from Britain, don’t you?

Yes, I do.

Your wife isn’t in China now, is she?

Yes, she is.(不,她在)

3.祈使句----提出命令、请求等,形式是动词原形先行,主语省略:

Don’t be late again.

Take a seat, please.

4.感叹句----表示赞美、惊异等情绪,形式是修饰短语,后接主语及be。主语及be可以省略:What a nice day!

How silly you are!

从结构上说分为三类:

1.简单句----句子成分都由单词或短语担任,且只有一个主谓结构,大体可以分为五种类型(见五种基本句型)

2.并列句----句子成分都由单词或短语担任,但有两个或更多互不依从的主谓结构:

It was getting late; she must star back home.

We fished all day; we didn’t catch a thing.

但更多的并列句都包含一个并列连词,把两部分连接起来。(and, or, for, but, so, yet, nor, not only… but also, either… or, neither…nor)

I’ve got a cold, so I’m going to bed

You must hurry or you won’t make it for the train.

还有一些副词也起连词的作用,可帮助构成并列句:

I think; therefore I am.

He cannot speak, neither can he hear.

3.复合句----有一个或更多成分由从句担任。复合句包含下列几类从句:

1)名词性从句

a.主语从句

※that引起的主语从句

That she is still alive is a consolation.

It is strange that it hasn’t been noticed before.

It’s a pity that he didn’t finish college.

It happened that the harvest was bad that year.

It is said that there has been an earthquake in Japan.

※由连接代词、连接副词或由连词whether引起的主语从句How many people we are to invite is still a question.

It is still a question how many people we are to invite.

It was clear enough what she meant.

It’s a puzzle how life began.

It didn’t matter much where he lived.

Is it known where they went?

※由关系代词型what引起的主语从句

What he said id true.

What you have to do is to choose a company to invest in.

b.表语从句

What surprised me was that she knew so much about China.

That’s how I look at it.

That’s where you are wrong.

That’s what I want to stress.

c.宾语从句

She said that she didn’t want to know.

I didn’t know whether they liked the place.

I wonder if it’s large enough.

I want to tell you what I hear.

I’m afraid that…

We are sure that…

d.同位语从句

We received a message that he would be absent.

2)定语从句

This is the book whitch\that was on the desk.

Jim introduced me to a girl who sat next to him.

These are the reasons why we did it.

3)状语从句

(时间、条件、目的、结果、原因、让步、方式、地点、比较)七、副词

副词的构成

?本身就是副词: often, rather …

?由形容词副词的类型(略)

加词尾-ly变化而来: rapidly, simply, easily, fully, truly, historically…

?有些单音节词可以直接用作副词,而不必加-ly: far, fast, late, hard …

?副词和形容词同形: early, enough…

以ly 结尾的形容词

?friendly, motherly, fatherly, womanly, manly, heavenly …

?daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, yearly …

?lovely, orderly, timely, deadly, lively, costly …

易混淆的(同源)副词

?clean “完全地”

cleanly “干净利落地”

?clear “完全地” (= clean)

clearly “清楚地”

但下列结构两者均可:

He spoke loud(ly) and clear(ly).

?close “近”

closely “细心地,严密地,紧密地”

?direct “直线地,不绕圈子地”

directly “直接地” (与“间接地”相对)

“立即,马上”

?hard “努力地”

hardly “几乎不”

?easy 只用于某些固定搭配中

easily “容易地”

high / highly

?high: 常用在指具体意义的“高”及某些固定结构中,如:

aim high 力争上游,

hold one’s head high 骄傲

search high and low 到处搜寻

?highly: 通常指抽象意义的“高”,也可用来修饰形容词,表示“很,极”,如:He spoke highly of her.

The book is highly interesting.

right / rightly

?right: 能作多种解释,用以修饰副词、介词,或在句中作状语

Go right home.

That’s the book, right in front of us.

Nothing seems to go right with me.

?rightly: 通常置于动词之前,“正确地”

?wide “宽地”(具体)

widely “广泛地”(抽象)

?free “免费地”

freely “自由地”

?deep “深地”(具体)

deeply “深地”(抽象)

特殊的副词much

?She didn’t talk much.

?I’m not much good at singing.

?That was much the best meal I’ve had for years.

?She is much too busy to see visitors.

副词比较级和最高级的一些特殊用法

?She went farther and farther away.

?The more I thought, the more extraordinary did it appear.

?We’d better not disturb him.

?You ought to know better than to go out without an overcoat on such a cold day.

?He was going to answer me back, but he thought better of it.

?I had best have your opinion first.

八.形容词的类型

?品质形容词Qualitative Adjectives

?类属形容词classifying adjectives

?颜色形容词colour adjectives

?强调形容词emphasizing adjectives

?-ing形容词

?-ed形容词

?合成形容词compound adjectives

-ing形容词VS. -ed形容词

exciting news – excited audience

boiling water – boiled water

a pleasing voice – a pleased look

a terrifying story – a terrified child

表语形容词VS. 定语形容词

?有一些形容词,特别是以a-开头的形容词,一般在句中只用作表语

?大部分形容词都可作定语,也可作表语,但有一部分形容词只能作定语?有些形容词通常用作表语,但在个别情况下可用作定语

?有些形容词可以放在名词前,也可放在名词后,

意思有时不同

?There are many old men present.

What’s your present feeling?

?形容词修饰由some-, any-, every-, no-等构成的合成代词时须后置

?Something strange, anything special

?形容词短语作定语,通常放在被修饰词之后

?Xi’an is a city famous for its historic spots.

形容词的比较级别

?形容词比较级和最高级的形式

?不规则的比较级和最高级形式

late, later, latest (表示时间)

late, latter, last (表示顺序)

?有些形容词没有比较级和最高级: unique, favorite, perfect, extreme, initial, supreme, final, infinite, ultimate, recent, inferior, superior, matchless, maximum, minimum, 这一类词一般也不用程度副词来修饰

形容词比较级的用法

?形容词比较级的形式:

(倍数) +比较级+than

?形容词比较级的修饰语

?too与can’t 连用修饰一个形容词,表示“……也不过分”;

too … to 结构表结果,一般意为“太……而不能……”,具有否定意义;但too后若修饰kind, ready,willing, happy等词时,不表结果,也无否定意义。

?(1)More…than 比较两种品质,“更多…而不是

?This is more a war movie than a western.

?(2)more and more

?(3)the more…the more

?The warmer the weather, the better I feel.

?4)more than+数词,”超过,多于…”

?5)less than “不到…”, “不太”

?I bought it for less than a dollar.

?The boys were less than happy about having a party.

?6)no less than “多达,不少于“

?No less than 1,000 people came.

?7)more or less 基本上,大体上,大约

?The work is more or less finished.

?The answers were more or less right.

形容词比较级的特殊用法

?并不是所有的比较级都必须与than搭配,有些形容词原型已具有比较意义,后面要接to:

anterior / prior / posterior + to

superior / inferior + to

senior / junior + to

形容词比较级的特殊用法

?若对两者进行比较,句中又无than出现,则常用: the+比较级+of the two

?比较级的惯用语:

He has no more than 20 yuan.

He has not more than 20 yuan.

She is no more beautiful than May.

She is not more beautiful than May.

比较级的惯用语

?no more than = only “仅”

?not more than = at most “至多”

?no more … than = neither … nor… “和……一样不”

?not more … than = less … than “不如”

?no less than = as much / many as

?not less than = at least “至少”

?no less … than = as … as “与……一样”

?not less … than = more … than “比……更”

?I would rather die than give in.

?She is not very beautiful, but I love her none the less.

?Now it is no longer a dream to fly to the moon.

?I know better than to quarrel with him.

形容词最高级的用法

?形容词最高级用于三者或三者以上的比较,通常用in, among或of引导的介词短语说明比较的范围

?形容词最高级前可用much, by far, quite far, nearly, almost等来修饰;但使用very来修饰时,必须是:

the very + 形容词最高级

形容词最高级的用法

?一般情况下,形容词最高级前要带the,但当形容词的最高级作表语又不和其他事物相比较时,前面一般不加the:

He is the busiest (boy) in the class.

He is busiest in September.

包含名词化形容词的词组

?他将永远离开这座城市。For good

?那杀手好几周都逍遥法外。At large

?他们之间的关系日益恶化。From bad to worse

?好歹他们是街坊。For better for worse

?她白等了。In vain

九.动词句型

S+Vi Every body smiled

S+Vt+O He knows everything

S+V+Oi+Od I showed him my passport

S+Vlink+C The boy looks healthy

S+Vt+O+C What made you angry?

基本框架S+V 祈使句

第一类句型S+Vi

S+Vi (1)

The sun is rising.

It’s snowing.

The train is arriving.

May I go?

S+Vi+adverbial (2)

Did you sleep well?

Don’t drive so fast.

She swims like a fish.

The temperature fell ten degrees.

S+Vi+adv (成语动词)(3)

The economic crisis broke out first in the United States.

The engine broke down.

How did the accident come about?

S+Vi (被动)(4)

The door blew open.

Cheese cuts easily.

Does this cloth wash well?

Where is the new film showing?

第二类句型S+Vt+O

S+Vt+n.(pron) (5)

Do you know them?

He loved poetry.

Have you ordered your meal?

Shall I call a taxi?

Don’t catch cold.(idiom)

This sentence doesn’t make sense.

S+Vt.+自身代词(6)

I can’t express myself in English.

Now I’ll introduce myself.

She saw herself in the mirror.

Are you enjoying yourselves? 固定词组

We engage ourselves to fulfil our obligations.

He had engaged to finish it by May.

S+V+同源宾语(7)

Alice laughed a scornful laugh.

He could sleep the peaceful sleep of the young.

He smiled a strange smile.

As he slept, he dreamed a dream.

She lived a happy life and died a natural death.

He said his say and then sat down.

主语+成语动词+宾

成语动词有以下六种

及物动词+副词(8)

He handed in his resignation this morning.

They brought forward a new scheme of taxation.

不及物动词+介词(9)

They will not agree to that arrangement.

He thought of his boyhood.

不及物动词+介词+名词(10)

The treaty will come into force next month.

The spring term had come to an end.

不及物动词+副词+介词(11)

We shouldn’t look down on this work.

The children were eagerly looking forward to the party.

及物动词+名词+介词(12)

Pay attention to your grammar.

I’ll take care of it.

及物动词+自身代词+介词(13)

I must accommodate myself to your plan.

They no longer troubled themselves about him.

主语+及物动词+不定式(作宾语)(14)

Someone is asking to see you.

We can’t afford to pay such a price.

主语+动词+连接副词(代词)+不定式(15)

You must learn when to give advice and when to be silent.

He explained how to use the dictionary.

主语+及物动词+动名词(作宾语)(16)

Would you mind waiting a few minute?

主语+及物动词+that引导的从句(作宾语)(17)

I hope that I have said nothing to pain you.

I guess we’ll leave now.

主语+及物动词+连接副(代)词引导的宾语从句(18)

I didn’t know where they had gone.

This shows how much she sympathized with him.

由what,whatever引导(19)

I’ll tell you what I hear.

第三类句型:主语+双宾动词+间宾+直宾

主语+双宾动词+名(代)词+名词(20)

She gave me her telephone number.

She sang a flok song for us.

I envy you your good luck.

主语+双宾动词+名代词+从句

从句由that引导(21)

Tell him I’m out.

连接副词(代词)或whether(if)引导(22)

Can you nform me where Miss Green lives?

由what(ever)引导(23)

I’ll tell you what I read in today’s paper.

第四类句型:主语+系动词+表语

主语+系动词+形容词(24)

How are you? I’m fine.

When she saw this, she turned red.

She remained calm.

This food looks delicious.

She always seems pleased, happy and contented.

主语+系动词+名词(代词)(25)

His dream has at last become a reality.

He stood there and felt a stranger.

I still stand your friend.我仍然是你的朋友

主语+系动词+副词(26)

Is Helen in?

I have been out for a walk.

主语+系动词+介词短语(27)

The bus stop is just across the road.

The temperature is between 15c and 25c.

主语+系动词+不定式(28)

His plan is to keep the affair secret.

Surely she was to be trusted.

主语+系动词+动名词(29)

Her hobby is collecting stamps.

My job is repairing cars.

主语+系动词+从句

That引导(30)

Their first idea was that he had hidden it.

由连接代词副词引导(31)

The question is what you want to do.

由what引导(32)

That’s what I wish to do.

主语+系动词+形容词+介短(33)

She is fond of this country.

I was frightened of rats then.

主语+系动词+形容词+不定式(34)

I was sorry to hear that you were ill.

I’m happy to meet you.

主语+系+形容词+从句

That 引导(35)

I’m afraid there is some sort of misunderstanding.

I’m glad you have come.

由连接代词副词引导(36)I was not sure what I ought to do. 第五类句型:主语+及物动词+复合宾语

主语+及物动词+宾语+形容词(作补语)(37)

He found his new job rather boring.

Good food keeps you healthy.

I felt it necessary to make everything clear.

主语+及物动词+宾语+名词(38)

They called their daughter Mary.

We elected Smith our chairman.

主语+及物动词+宾语+介短(39)

He put his books in order.

She tried to talk her husband out of going.

主语+及物动词+宾语+副词(40)

She wished herself home.

Don’t leave me behind.

主语+及物+宾+不定式(41)

What do you advise me to do?

We thought hime to be an honest man.

主语+及物+宾+不带to的不定式(42) What makes you tremble so?

We can’t let this go on.

主语+及物+宾+现在分词(43)

He found Helen sitting there.

I saw her chatting with Nancy.

主+及物+宾+过去分词(44)

I have heard it said that he is a miser.

He watched the piano carried upstairs.

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